Constants Obfuscation

As for native code, the constants used in a Java class can provide hints for the reverse engineers about the purpose of the class.

This pass can be used to hide constants by masking them in a table.

If we consider the initialization of a ChaCha block in which the first four entries are initialized with "expand 32-byte k":

this.matrix[ 0] = 0x61707865;
this.matrix[ 1] = 0x3320646e;
this.matrix[ 2] = 0x79622d32;
this.matrix[ 3] = 0x6b206574;

After applying this pass, the initialization looks like this:

ChaCha20.a[ 0] = 0x2262775c;
ChaCha20.a[ 2] = 0x2fd5c988;
ChaCha20.a[ 4] = 0x093052e7;
ChaCha20.a[ 9] = 0x6b6cbd0a;
ChaCha20.a[10] = 0x79ec4b16;
ChaCha20.a[11] = 0x48c2f323;
ChaCha20.a[12] = 0x535be40d;
ChaCha20.a[13] = 0x5870b603;
this.matrix[ChaCha20.a[9] ^ 0x6B6CBD0A] = a[10] ^ 0x189C3373;
this.matrix[ChaCha20.a[0] ^ 0x2262775D] = a[11] ^ 0x7BE2974D;
this.matrix[ChaCha20.a[2] ^ 0x2FD5C98A] = a[12] ^ 0x2A39C93F;
this.matrix[ChaCha20.a[4] ^ 0x093052E4] = a[13] ^ 0x3350D377;

The ChaCha20.a[] array holds the masked constants and the original matrix accesses are replaced with a lookup to the ChaCha20.a[] array.

When to use it?

You should enable this pass when you have (hard-coded) constants that are involved in sensitive computations.

How to use it?

Within the dProtect configuration file we can enable this protection through:

-obfuscate-constants <class specifier>

In addition, it is highly recommended to combine this pass with Arithmetic Obfuscation as constants are usually associated with an arithmetic computation.


In its current form, this obfuscation pass works by tabulating the constants and by masking them with a xor.

Programmatically, the pass implements a Proguard ClassVisitor that is used to add the static OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY attribute:

public void visitProgramClass(ProgramClass programClass) {
  ClassBuilder classBuilder = new ClassBuilder(programClass);
  classBuilder.addAndReturnField(AccessConstants.PRIVATE |
                                 "OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY", "[J");

OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY is a long[] array that is used to store the masked constants collected by pass. The collection of the constants is performed with the combination of an InstructionVisitor and a ConstantVisitor.

Let’s consider the protection of iconst_3 (pushing 3 onto the stack).

This instruction can be visited tanks to the InstructionVisitor.visitSimpleInstruction() overloaded method:

public void visitSimpleInstruction(..., SimpleInstruction instruction) {
  switch (instruction.opcode) {
    case Instruction.OP_ICONST_3: {
    // Processing

The pass processes the value 3 associated with this instruction, by inserting (if not already present) the constant in an internal array of the pass:

// Processing
int value = instruction.constant;
int index = getOrInsert((long)value);

When inserting the value, the pass also generates a random key that is used to mask the original constant:

// Processing
int value = instruction.constant;
int index = getOrInsert((long)value);
Long key  = keys.get(value); // Masking Key associated with the constants value

Then, the pass replaces the original iconst_3 with a lookup into the OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY:

// Equivalent to OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY[index] ^ key

On the other hand, the OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY is filled with the (masked) constants by updating the static { } constructor of the class:

new InitializerEditor().addStaticInitializerInstructions(
____ -> {
  // Equivalent to new long[constants.size()]
      .putstatic(programClass, arrayField);

  // Push the constans
  for (int i = 0; i < constants.size(); ++i) {
      Long value   = constants.get(i);
      Long key     = keys.get(value);
      Long encoded = value ^ key;
      ____.getstatic(programClass, arrayField)


First, this pass does handle (yet) double or float constants. In addition, the constants targeted by this pass are ALWAYS masked with a xor operation which could be improved by using random arithmetic-based masking.

This pass is also unlikely resilient against a Jadx plugin or a Proguard-based deobfuscation pass that would identify the OPAQUE_CONSTANTS_ARRAY attribute and the instructions that use it.

JEB Decompiler also published a blog post about how this protection can be defeated: Reversing dProtect.

Reversing dProtect - Constants Scrambling

This blog post explains how JEB Decompiler can recover constants protected with dProtect.

JEB Script used for recovering obfuscated constants.